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) refers to any system that combines conventional aquaculture (raising aquatic animals such as snails, fish, crayfish or prawns in tanks) with hydroponics (cultivating plants in water) in a symbiotic environment.
In normal aquaculture, excretions from the animals being raised can accumulate in the water, increasing toxicity.
Aquatic effluents, resulting from uneaten feed or raising animals like fish, accumulate in water due to the closed-system recirculation of most aquaculture systems.
The effluent-rich water becomes toxic to the aquatic animal in high concentrations but this contains nutrients essential for plant growth.
Plants can be spaced closer together because the roots do not need to expand outwards to support the weight of the plant.
Many plants are suitable for aquaponic systems, though which ones work for a specific system depends on the maturity and stocking density of the fish.
By utilizing gravel or sand as plant supporting medium, solids are captured and the medium has enough surface area for fixed-film nitrification.
Green leaf vegetables with low to medium nutrient requirements are well adapted to aquaponic systems, including chinese cabbage, lettuce, basil, spinach, chives, herbs, and watercress.Although consisting primarily of these two parts, aquaponics systems are usually grouped into several components or subsystems responsible for the effective removal of solid wastes, for adding bases to neutralize acids, or for maintaining water oxygenation.which prevents the water from flowing directly from the aquaculture part of the system to the hydroponics part.Ammonia is steadily released into the water through the excreta and gills of fish as a product of their metabolism, but must be filtered out of the water since higher concentrations of ammonia (commonly between 0.5 and 1 ppm) Ammonia can be converted into safer nitrogenous compounds through combined healthy populations of 2 types of bacteria: Nitrosomonas which convert ammonia into nitrites, and Nitrobacter which then convert nitrites into nitrates.While nitrite is still harmful to fish due to its ability to create metehemoglobine, which cannot bind oxygen, by attaching to hemoglobin, nitrates are able to be tolerated at high levels by fish.
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Plants are grown as in hydroponics systems, with their roots immersed in the nutrient-rich effluent water.